The roots of organic farming probe deep into the soil of human agricultural history. We have depended on natural resources and ecological processes for 99% of the time since our ancestors moved from hunting and gathering to a sedentary habitation and organized production of plants and animals some 10,000 years ago. During all this time, most of our crops depended on natural rainfall and stored moisture from winter snows in the temperate regions. Their nutrients came from soil organic matter, plant residues, animal manures, and small amounts from rainfall. Most pests were controlled by other organisms, by plant diversity in the system, and by natural genetic tolerance recognized by women who were the first plant breeders, and who harvested the best individual plants and saved their seeds. Since there were no chemicals used or transgenic crops (genetically modified organisms [GMOs]), except those that arose by natural crossing, these were de facto organic farming systems. This chapter explores the linkages between the development of agriculture and ideas about organic practices and systems. Although we do not present an exhaustive treatise on agricultural history here, we recommend further exploration of the linkages between the development of agriculture and ideas about organic practices and systems.