The Watershed Impact Trial is designed to explore and educate the public on connections between farming practices and clean water.

In partnership with Stroud Water Research Center and with sponsorship from the William Penn Foundation, our goal is to change the management practices of 50,000 acres in the Delaware River Watershed.

Trial Design

The Watershed Impact Trial is a comparison of organic and conventional agricultural systems to determine their relative impacts on the environment, especially water quality.

The trial is located on 40 acres of sloped land at the Stroud Preserve in Chester County, Pennsylvania. At such a scale, we can extrapolate data to apply to large farms. The topography of the preserve enables us to recreate common conditions, as most runoff occurs on slope.

On four large plots, we are growing grain crops using four different management systems: organic with tillage, organic with reduced/rotational tillage, conventional with tillage, and conventional or “conservation” no-till.

The trial will run for a minimum of 6 years.

2018 crop plan for the Watershed Impact Trial

What We’re Measuring

Quantity and composition of runoff

Residues of pesticides, fungicides, and herbicides on crops and in the water and soil

Stream water quality, or the presence of harmful microbes in the water

Physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil, including water infiltration

Crop yields

Emissions and energy use

The Impacts of Farming on Water

Regenerative Organic Agriculture

Conventional Agriculture

Uses no toxic pesticides or synthetic fertilizers, so they can’t end up in waterways Relies on chemical fertilizers and herbicides that can runoff into nearby bodies of water and infiltrate groundwater
Employs cover crops, which hold soil in place and improve soil fertility Limited or no use of cover crops, leaving exposed soil vulnerable to erosion
Builds soil health, leading to soils that are more stable and hold more water Depletes soil, further increasing risk of runoff
stroud preserve view

The Delaware River Watershed

The Delaware River Watershed encompasses 13,500 square miles and provides drinking water for approximately 5% of the U.S. population. It is a major recreational and industrial area for residents of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware, with an economic value of $25 billion annually.

What’s at stake?

The nitrogen and phosphorus in chemical fertilizers that runoff into waterways cause algae to grow faster than ecosystems can handle, decreasing the oxygen that fish and aquatic life need to survive and causing “dead zones.” The dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico, not even the largest in the world, covers more than 8,500 square miles.

Looking upstream at the way we farm can have a huge impact on the quality and quantity of clean, fresh water available worldwide.

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