Made in the USA: Organic cotton

By Victoria Bouloubasis

With chickens grazing by his feet, Eric Henry, president of TS Designs, lifts a branch of organic cotton just plucked from the backyard garden of his T-shirt printing business. As if picked from the sky, the puffs of white cotton resemble tiny cumulus clouds hanging from winter branches.

Since the mid-1990s, Henry has helped grow TS Designs, based in Burlington, North Carolina, by turning a highly toxic T-shirt production into a cleaner, safer operation with a conscious and sustainable business model. Part of that has been transforming a traditional Carolina crop into more than just a commodity.

“We have a long history of running around the world and chasing cheap labor. We’ve got to take the blinders off,” Henry says. He specifically places blame on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for the decimation of local cotton production. Since NAFTA, he says 35,000 textile jobs were lost in North Carolina alone.

“Through this globalization of the textile industry, everyone puts [their cotton] in silos and sells it to a broker,” says Henry. “Once that broker buys that cotton, and buys from a lot of other people with essentially the same quality, you don’t really know where it came from. The ‘country of origin’ is required by law, but that’s only the last place it was. It’s impossible to go backwards.”

Despite the bleak industrial model in which we find ourselves, demand for locally grown organic cotton is on the rise. States with a relative abundance of conventional cotton are ramping up efforts to increase the viability of growing it organically.

As such, TS Designs launched their Cottons of the Carolinas program five years ago, sourcing local cotton and creating a product—a simple T-shirt—that has been grown, spun and woven all at home.

“Cotton of the Carolinas identifies the supply chain,” says Henry. Through making their Cotton of the Carolinas supply chain transparent, TS Designs built relationships with existing cotton farmers, ginners and processors. As a subset of the project, they also launched a specifically organic local cotton initiative.

In December 2012, their first successful organic cotton harvest yielded about 25,000 pounds of cotton from 50 acres, between two farms: Hickory Meadows Organics and Parrish Enterprises.

According to Mary Wilks of Carolina Precision Consulting, the farmers decided going organic would result in a productive trial. Wilks’ company consults growers on everything from fertility to pest management to certification and has been working with TS Designs for about three years, connecting growers with processors.

“Once the mills got word of what we had going on, they were really excited,” Wilks says. “I mean, they offered contracts. One of the growers, Orpha Gene Watson at Hickory Meadows Organics, said it’s nice to grow something that people want, that people call you for instead of you having to try and sell it.”

Orpha Gene Watson and his family have been farming conventional crops for more than three generations in Nash County, North Carolina. They began the organic arm of their farm in 2008 with organic tobacco. They started planting organic cotton in 2011, and have seen first-hand the fruits of their labor.

“There are people in North Carolina that want organic cotton grown in North Carolina and that makes a difference to me,” says Watson. “The customers want to know where this cotton came from, just like they want to know about their food. They want to know who grew it.”

Farmer Orpha Gene Watson, ag consultant Mary Wilks and TS Design's Eric Henry.

That’s not to say the idea wasn’t met with trepidation.

“When we decided to do this five years ago, everybody said it’s so tough,” Henry adds. “And, in the scheme of things, it ain’t much.” It takes just under 1 pound of cotton to yield one T-shirt and with only 25,000 pounds of local, organic cotton harvested last year, the program is still a very small drop in a very large bucket.

But, the yield gave growers and everyone on the value chain the hope that organic cotton in North Carolina could become a fruitful enterprise, much like in Texas. More organic cotton in the United States grows in Texas than in any other state. Last year, the Texas Organic Cotton Cooperative celebrated 20 years of growing.

In Texas, organic cotton sells for $1.50 per pound. In North Carolina’s first year of production, TS Designs paid farmers $1.75 per pound (compared with an average of $1.30 per pound for conventional cotton). This year, they paid $2. From an industry perspective, Henry insists that North Carolina has the means to quickly reach Texas levels of production.

“North Carolina is one of the few states with the existing infrastructure to go dirt to shirt,” he says.

Organic cotton seed is also incredibly affordable which, according to Henry, costs only $70 per bag. GMO seed is at $400 a bag. While GMO seed is formulated to persist through weed pressure, the incessant pigweed problem in North Carolina still causes conventional farmers to spend even more each year on pesticides. “For these farmers, it’s not quite the deal they expected when they got into this four or five years ago,” says Henry.

Of course, organic farmers aren’t immune to problems. The natural adversities faced by all farmers growing organically, regardless of the crop, are universal. Recent drought in Texas caused an incredible decline in meeting demand. Weeds and insects increase labor costs everywhere.

In 2010, a Global Market Report on Sustainable Textiles by the Textile Exchange predicted organic cotton would be a $7.4 billion industry by 2012.  But worldwide production faltered in 2011, falling for the first time in ten years by 37%. India, a country thriving on cheap labor costs, provides 70% of the world’s organic cotton but also saw the greatest reduction.

Aside from uncontrollable natural disaster (like a freak hail storm that wiped out most of North Carolina’s organic crop last season), many critics account for a lack of communication along the value chain for a still struggling U.S. organic cotton industry.

Yet TS Designs maintains that their transparent supply chain model assures success down the line. He and his partner farmers are working with local sustainable agriculture experts and programs to find solutions to production problems on the ground.

The transparent supply chain from farmers to ginners to processors and everyone in between provides
a level of ownership and accountability that TS Designs believes engenders long-term success.

“I’m hoping that it could be a game changer for the way cotton is grown, at least in our area,” says Henry. “It gets down to strictly economic sense, and if the economies are there, this thing can go from 100 acres to maybe 10,000 acres. We were lucky with one year, and we’ve gotta do it again.”

What remains is a high demand for organic cotton that is locally sourced and sustainable not only for the environment, but for the local economy.

“People are taking advantage of not only growing the cotton, but keeping the cotton here,” says Henry. “That’s how it’s going to have an impact on jobs, rather than if we just grow the cotton and ship it overseas. Our biggest competition is price. Labor rates in Bangladesh are $0.55 an hour, versus $15 an hour here. Yes, it costs more, but we’re impacting hundreds of local jobs at the same time.”

Despite the hail storm that knocked out most of Watson’s organic cotton crop, he perseveres. He sees organic cotton as an opportunity to keep his sons and nephews, all studying agriculture, on the farm with a secure lifestyle.

“It’s just like any other product,” says Watson. “Maybe some years you just break even. That’s a risk we take every year. But I would like to continue doing it. And hopefully we can. It’s a pretty unique thing to put on a shirt and be able to say, ‘I grew cotton that made this shirt.’”

Victoria Bouloubasis is a freelance food and agriculture journalist based in Durham, NC. Her work can be found on her website:

23 Responses to “Made in the USA: Organic cotton”

  1. Jan

    Inspiring strides made! I have followed the journey of TS Designs, and it’s heartwarming to see the lengths they’ve gone to!!

    I would love to see the growers and processors in NC move toward GOTS certification, particularly as NOP certifies only the growing not the processing. (Not sure the NC growers are certified to NOP.) From my experience and research, this is why many US-based manufacturers cannot support the businesses in our own backyards. The growing side of US organic cotton may be in alignment with GOTS’ strict standards, but the US textile processing falls far short of GOTS or any sort of thoughtful, comprehensive eco-friendly production. Much like the USDA symbol on food products, consumers are becoming more and more savvy about organic standards and they want to see a mark assuring them that they are buying what they think they are buying. Likewise, manufacturers-wholesalers need to be assured that we’re selling what we think we’re selling.

    I have spoken with the Texas Organic Coop and many textile mills in the US over the years. With every conversation, I am always hopeful something will have changed that would allow me to manufacture stateside, but it has not yet. There is a great deal of cooperative planning and buying throughout the supply chain overseas that allows for less risky front-end investments by farmers and mills. Maybe more programs of this nature would enable us to find ways to support organic cotton farmers and would motivate mills to adopt eco-friendly processing on a larger scale.

  2. sharon

    Thanks for growing organic and investing in the US I prefer to buy made in USA and organic

  3. Charlotte Wales

    I am so inspired by your company – – I hope to see many, many more organic companies spring up against the terrible tide of pesticide/herbicide-laden products most are forced to buy. YAY, ORGANICS!!!

  4. Patricia Brodbeck

    Am looking for 100 percent cotton woven dish cloths. I use to buy them in NC years ago but am having trouble finding them now. Do you know of a mill in your state, or any other, that still makes them. They are really soft and durable. Solid white or off white are the ones I have purchased in the past. Any help will be appreciated.

    • Joan

      You may be in luck soon. I am in the pre-planning stages of putting together a USA made, pure organic, dishcloth company! (when I say beginning, I do mean beginning) But I’m so excited because this is my passion!

  5. Don kern

    I was wondering if you know a source were I can get organic cotton for a disinfecting wipe we are trying to develop. Sheets in a 3×3 or in this size range. Trying to avoid china. Help! Thanks don kern dancinglightranch

  6. Seth

    I farm organic cotton in Texas and would like to find a buyer in the USA, to make a product with my cotton in the USA .

    • Jason


      I am a couple manufacturer or a cotton product here in the US. I’d like to speak with you at your earliest convenience.

    • Chris Gelling

      Hi Seth,
      Im looking to produce organic cotton tshirts & shorts
      and am in Mt Pleasant SC, (near Charleston) I used to
      have a screen printing business & hoping you could
      point me in the right direction.
      Thanks Chris 843-709-5229

  7. Mary

    If our leaders could repeal NAFTA or “renegotiate” NAFTA and bring good paying manufacturing and farming jobs back to the USA more US citizens could afford to pay decent costs for USA goods instead of the cheap textiles we get from India and other countries.

  8. Sandra

    I would love to find well constructed U.S. grown, milled, spun organic cotton sheets and clothing, made to previous U.S. standards, by U.S. workers.
    Years ago, Jockey made women’s organic cotton athletic shirts and lingerie, which was much more comfortable and longer lasting than the cheap items you find today.
    I loathe polyester and “stretch” cotton. The caliber of cotton fabric for sewing projects is deplorable. Most of it comes from China, the sizing is significantly smaller than what was produced in the U.S., and is so flimsy that it looks cheap.
    It’s sad that so many consumers have had to resort to cheaply made foreign products due to declining incomes or lost jobs. Additionally, corporate greed has exacerbated the problem.
    I applaud the organic cotton growers, and wish that more 100 % organic cotton products would become available.

  9. Md.Anower shah maksud

    hi, l am a Bangladeshi . Government meant technical teachers in textile sector and head of department. i am very interest to visit in your industry. it’s important to improve my knowledge and shearing my students. please contact me. thanks.

  10. James Kerby

    Since President Trump has taken steps even before being sworn in to be our best Leader ever, to reduce regulations and help the USA become NUMBER ONE again, I and my Wife are considering to Propose a Factory so advanced that raw USA cotton comes in one side and PURE Cotton Textile ready for production of all linens, shirts, under garments and make it be a profitable industry right here in the USA, NO POLY’s infused or threads mixed in a pure product. This concept could make a very livable wage for all concerned.
    A real, “Made IN the USA”, would mean Pride again.
    We need backers and true to heart people to assist this endeavor to make the Cotton Textile a real concept, not just a dream.
    WE live in “Cotton Plant”, FL. and wish to make this County one of the leaders in PURE Cotton products.
    I believe this concept would produce and give the PEOPLE what they want and expect. Along with good wages for employees with benefits that are adequate to live the American dream without hiring cheap labor. Intellect and proper designs of the plants are the key. Help if you can with any input for we are VERY serious to get this underway and in the market place ASAP.

    • Chris Gelling

      Hi James –
      Id like to start producing US made tshirts and shorts again – Chris Gelling Mt Pleasant SC 843-709-5229

  11. Trish Jones

    I am starting a new apparel line that will include robes, sleepwear, blankets and dog vests with unique prints. I want to use organic cotton. I am also hoping that you may know a manufacture that is willing to make small quantities of fabrics for one time use. The quantities may be as small as two yards at times.

  12. Karen Wyeth

    I design and wholesale organic cotton bread bags & produce bags, currently made in India. I am looking for a local USA manufacturer if there is anyone out there who can help.

  13. Chris

    I am also interested in having a product line of 100% cotton organic made in usa Tshirts & shorts. You folks are doing such great work by helping to bring jobs back home to the USA Chris

  14. Aaron Beny

    Starting a clothing line and I am looking for USA made organic cotton shirts and have brand on it. If anyone knows anyone please please please call me God Bless US!!!

  15. Mike Bacher

    I am looking for a US based manufacturer that can produce and package children and baby garments in the USA from Organic cotton grown in the USA. The manufacturer must meet NOP standards per USDA Policy Memorandum 11-4 so that the final manufactured garment may be certified USDA Organic. I am ready to place a purchase order immediately. Mike Bacher.

  16. Shahidul Khan Shaheed


    We are a raw cotton selling agent in Bangladesh.
    One of our Bangladeshi Buyer want to buy US organic cotton. Can I have the details for the above organic cotton.

  17. zue

    I am looking for a manufacturer who made organic cotton as a felt. If anybody knows something, please give me some info.


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