Today’s society produces a number of “wastes” that could be beneficially used in agriculture. Mutual benefits could accrue to both the farm and nonfarm sectors through this utilization. Encouraging the use of these materials requires an understanding of both the barriers to and the opportunities for their use. Composting is one technology that can facilitate the use by farms of nonfarm materials. In 1991, the Rodale Institute Research Center initiated its Farm Co-Composting Project. The goals of the project are: (i) Transforming rural and urban wastes into agricultural resources; and (ii) Converting rural/urban conflicts into enterprise opportunities. The Project has identified a variety of barriers to the cocomposting of agricultural and nonagricultural wastes on farms, and is implementing strategies to reduce or overcome these barriers.