Mesophyllic fertilizer and soil culturing

By Kevin Meehan, owner Turtle Run Farm and Carolina Farm Stewardship Association member

Every year, all the local organic farmers meet for the split up of the feather meal truck in Pittsboro, NC, go home and dump the stuff on our fields. One day about 12 years ago, I decided that the feather meal smelled so horrible (and smelled even worse when it rotted) that it and every other bad smelling thing would be forever banned from Turtle Run. It was tough getting the right nutrients until we made a chance discovery about five years ago.

We accidentally left an open 50-pound bag of alfalfa pellets under the roof overhang of the barn. That night the rain dripped into the bag and in the morning there was steam rising up from some extremely fragrant alfalfa.  We shoveled the hot soggy bag into a tub and later dumped it out into the closest row crop as mulch. When harvest time came around we observed that the part of the bed where we put the hot pellets was more vigorous than the rest of the row.

We had been using alfalfa meal for years as a fertilizer by just walking down the row pouring dry pellets out of the bag onto the raised bed.  Alfalfa has many beneficial compounds in it and we would often try to fulfill our nitrogen requirement with it, but since it is less than 3% nitrogen we needed lots of expensive bags.  It wasn't really practical.

The next season we started making controlled alfalfa/water batches and soon learned that it worked better if we first tossed in a handful of soil. After a couple of hours in the insulated vat, the mixture started giving off a strong smell which reminded us of lawn clippings that get left in the catcher for a while. It is a fruity or nutty smell in the early stage of decomposition with aerobic microbes going after the fresh food source. The mix heated up to 105-110 degrees F and needed to be stirred with a shovel occasionally. About 48 hours into it we had to call it quits because the smell was becoming unbearable, quickly changing from good to bad.

With the next batch we stopped earlier when it still had the fruity smell. We then made one more discovery.  After the sun had been shining on the soil for a few hours and warmed it up we would pour the steaming mixture onto the raised beds and quickly scratch-till it in. An amazing and powerful smell started rising up out of the soil as the fungi, yeast and bacterium went to work on the organic crop residue.

Over the last five years we’ve continued perfecting the recipe. We call the final product “meso,” short for “mesophyllic” which means middle-temperature microbes. The gut of an animal has a similar process going on which is why manure makes such good fertilizer and has a rich smell. The experiments have paid off for us in increased crop yields and at this point we do not plant anything out before adding the meso first to the soil. Other than crop residue and a little Chilean Nitrate in the irrigation drip lines later in the season, the meso became our main nitrogen source.

The whole experience has led me to two new radical theories about organic farming. The first is that nitrogen is not a crop requirement but a symptom of microbial activity. The “pounds of nitrogen” needed for any planting should be corrected to read “pounds of good-smelling microbes.” This answers the age old conundrum of why compost makes for big healthy plants but is very low on nitrogen.

Now for the second theory: Water can be added to dry material to create even more pounds of fertilizer because the water becomes incorporated within the microbial bodies! The amount of decay product in the batch of alfalfa mix or soil can be measured by the smell it puts off.  The better and more powerful the smell, the better it will work as fertilizer because the plant roots will work with the microbes to uptake nutrients.

Here is the recipe if you want to give this a try:

1. Divide a 50-pound bag of dry, 100% Alfalfa pellets into two big plastic tubs. (NOTE: Do not use brands of alfalfa that use beef tallow or soy oil as a binder. Only use 100% dehydrated pellets.)

2. Place the tubs into two additional tubs for insulation (four tubs total, two with pellets and two for insulation).

3. Throw one handful of rich soil or compost high in organic decay into each tub.

4. Pour 4-1/2 gallons of hot water into each and swirl the pellets around with a shovel until the water is absorbed evenly and the batch is uniform texture.

5. Cut some cardboard to fit and place down on the meso mix. Cover with both tub lids and put as much insulation as possible on top, such as old blankets. Cover with a tarp to act as a final insulator and to keep the rain off.

6. As it begins to decay it tends to cake up, so stir it at about 4-6 hours, then once again at about 24 hours. The batch should be ready around 36 to 40 hours (depending on outside temperatures).

7. Watch out for stuff left too long in the vat! If the decaying material smells bad, there is either too much moisture or low oxygen content.

8. Depending on the crop, we usually use one 50-pound bag of pellets (now weighing 122 pounds with the water added) per 500 square feet of raised bed.

Kevin, Kim, Erin and Clare Meehan are Carolina Farm Stewardship Association members and own and operate Turtle Run Farm, a small vegetable farm in the historic village of Saxapahaw, NC near Chapel Hill. In business since 1996, they grow produce without the aid of sprays, pesticides, herbicides or other harmful chemicals. Kevin is also the inventor of the “Use-Yer-Foot,” a lightweight portable sink that provides fresh, running water in places without conventional plumbing.  They’re especially handy for CFSA’s farm tours!  Find out more at:

25 Responses to “Mesophyllic fertilizer and soil culturing”

  1. Kris Snider

    Q: What about using baled alfalfa instead of pellets. I have made a similar mixture with alfalfa hay. It was a recipe from the book “Great Garden Concoctions”. I do plan to try it with pellets. Thanks for the info..

    • Kevin Meehan

      Kris, Yes you could use baled alfalfa, but you would have to shred it up into small particles so the water would absorb evenly and then there is the stirring which is essential. The key is getting it to warm up uniformly. Kevin

  2. Sally

    I have a small backyard garden in Phoenix and have often considered using alfalfa pellets with my compost. I appreciate your comment about not using pellets with animal or soy additives. But I am wondering if alfalfa is grown with pesticides and herbicides. Enjoyed your article. Thanks.

  3. Karen

    Can you recommend a good resource for the best alfalfa pellets in the Southeast US (without beef tallow or soy oil)?

    • Kevin

      Karen, I use Grainland brand which is distributed by Purina and comes from Missouri.

  4. Nicole

    Awesome! Totally gonna give this a try. Need a clarification though- are you applying it once at the beginning of the season, or on a set frequency basis?

    • Kevin

      Nicole, Always before planting and sometimes some more later such as potatoes where we put additional meso out before we hill up.

  5. Angela

    Should the mix be “soupy” to start with? The 4-1/2 gal didn’t seem to be enough water and just made the mixture mealy. Any thoughts?

    • Kevin

      Angela, Pour 4 1/2 gallons into each tub, 9 gallons for the 50 lb. bag. It absorbs fairly quick and you have to go in every so often and bust up the clumps. The final product is what you call mealy, but spreads easily when its done

  6. Sarah

    This is very interesting compost! I am concerned about
    Round Up Ready Alfalfa (GMO) as it has been on the market for quite some time. So yes, it can be sprayed heavily and is with the genetic alterations I’d be concerned about it in my garden. I haven’t looked into finding organic alfalfa, though it must exist!

  7. Amanda Clark

    I’m wondering why insulation is necessary. Can you do it without. I have very limited resources and can’t buy all those tubs.

  8. Kevin

    Amanda, The insulation is the key to getting it to warm up similar to getting bread to rise or making yoghurt. You need to have a tub to mix the water with the pellets anyway. You could use a single tub, but wrap it with all the old blankets and tarps that you can find, the more the better especially if it is cold out.

  9. Ray Kamalay

    Would unfertilized grass clippings (a mixture of grasses and broadleaf weeds from my poorly tended lawn) impart the same nitrogen as alfalfa meal?

  10. Tim

    We have been using a liquid fertilizer with success utilizing alfalfameal (loose; not in pellets) in water with a pinch of molasses. Works great! I’m going to try your recipe.

  11. Susan

    This along with the comments is a very interesting article about composting.

    I cannot turn a compost pile, having fractured my spine just reaching for a rake in 2012.

    I had zero problems composting my hurricane downed (and shredded) trees in 2005, I just spread them across the garden and waited 5 months. After which I added vegetable and fruit kitchen wastes, grass clippings (from chemical free lawn), coffee grounds and blood meal.

    The composting process made rich, black soil and my plantings loved it for years. All that was needed was leaves for mulch and food in the years to come.

    But, more recently, I’ve been unable to create compost in a tumbler. Nothing I did worked.

    In desperation, this year, I bought 2000 red wigglers and a worm bin. The worms eat my vegetable/fruit wastes and slowly are producing lots of worm castings.

    My garden will be a raised bed 4 feet off the ground and then 4′ x 8′ in length. I’m hoping I’ll have enough worm castings for side dressings this fall for my new seedlings.

    My question is: Do the worm castings need to be composted (that is, brought up to temperature to kill the pathogens) before use in my small garden. I’ll be growing collards, and eventually kale, carrots, and other leafy greens or root veggies depending upon my success, and purchase of future bins.

    I’m concerned about using manure from animals that are not eating certified organic, and equally concerned about using potentially GMO plant cuttings. The worms are eating certified organic commercial plant wastes.

    Since 1986, I’ve eaten almost 95% certified organic food, and after fracturing my spine in 2012, I switched to vegan to reduce pain and inflammation in my body, eating 4-6 cups of chopped cooked collards per day. My doctor said that he would expect someone to grow new bone in 3 months, but not 3 weeks. As of my last checkup 4 weeks later, I had totally regrown a new pelvic bone in record time.

    I think the fast growth was eating organic only and eating vegan. Remembering what Dr. Don Huber, Ph.D. had said about herbicides being mineral chelators, and the binding of minerals to the soil and blocking the assimilation of minerals and nutrients from getting into plants and animals who need them. I need them for health and repair.


  12. jeff

    I’m intrigued by this process. I have tried using alfalfa pellets (straight from the bag) and had an unexpected result. The alfalfa pellets available in my area is frequently grown with timothy grass (timothy hay). The timothy has some seeds and I ending up with an excessive weeding project for the next few years. Timothy is not very hard to pull and it did not spread rapidly, it was just an annoyance and big time consumer.
    Are there versions of alfalfa pellets that do not contain other crops? Thanks for the article.

  13. Kevin

    We have made an improvement to the original recipe. Add 1/4 cup of sugar to the warm water, then pour it into the tub of pellets. It really kick starts the action. It’s interesting to consider sugar as a fertilizer but it makes a huge difference.

  14. Olga

    Hi! Tried this recipe and today fertilized my vegetable beds with the alfalfa mix. Not sure if the end product is what it should be, but the alfalfa is now more like a powder, and it smells sweet and a little fermented – it does not have the alfalfa smell anymore. I also applied the mix to my dahlias, roses and perennials. I’m hoping this won’t be too much nitrogen and hence not much flowering for the above plants. Thank you for sharing.

  15. Matt

    Can’t wait to try this. just wondering this probably wouldn’t work with chlorinated tap water would it?

  16. David

    Chlorinated tap water will be fine. If you wish you can fill a large bin with tap water and let it set outside for 12-24 hours then use it. But it really isn’t necessary.

  17. Scott simpson

    Hello, I own a small organic compost business and I add alfalfa meal to my piles. Would alfalfa tea be better or should I just keep adding the meal. Thank you, scott

  18. Pam Lassila

    I have really been wanting to get into farming this past year. I think that I’m finally going to start doing it this spring! It’s so fun planning out your garden. And you everything to work out well and grow Because of that I am trying to find a good fertilizer or figure out how to use compost.

  19. Nina Shukin

    I am new to my garden. The “soil” was left for a number of years and grew a heavy grass on top. After scraping the top off, covering it for the autumn, winter, and spring, the “soil” was put back into the garden space. The reason I emphasize “soil” is that there is very little soil and lots of sand. Unfortunately, due to time constraints and limited knowledge we were unable to amend in a big way and now my garden is suffering. We did use some composted horse manure but that is all. Everything is slow growing and I am not sure what to do. Although it is almost mid-July, can I use alfalfa now to boost my existing plants? We are experiencing a heat wave but still have cool nights.

  20. Paul Cwalina

    Why is getting the pelitized version of the alfalfa more important then getting then getting the ground up version?


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